Aggregate and Scalar functions are in built function for counting and calculations.

Aggregate functions operate against a group of values but returns only one value.

AVG(column) :- Returns the average value of a column

COUNT(column) :- Returns the number of rows (without a NULL value) of a column

COUNT(*) :- Returns the number of selected rows

MAX(column) :- Returns the highest value of a column

MIN(column) :- Returns the lowest value of a column

Scalar functions operate against a single value and return value on basis of the single value.

UCASE(c) :- Converts a field to upper case

LCASE(c) :- Converts a field to lower case

MID(c,start[,end]) :- Extract characters from a text field

LEN(c) :- Returns the length of a text

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