Aggregate and Scalar functions are in built function for counting and calculations.
Aggregate functions operate against a group of values but returns only one value.
AVG(column) :- Returns the average value of a column
COUNT(column) :- Returns the number of rows (without a NULL value) of a column
COUNT(*) :- Returns the number of selected rows
MAX(column) :- Returns the highest value of a column
MIN(column) :- Returns the lowest value of a column
Scalar functions operate against a single value and return value on basis of the single value.
UCASE(c) :- Converts a field to upper case
LCASE(c) :- Converts a field to lower case
MID(c,start[,end]) :- Extract characters from a text field
LEN(c) :- Returns the length of a text