When we design transactional database we always think in terms of normalizing design to its least form. But when it comes to designing for Data warehouse we think more in terms of denormalizing the database. Data warehousing databases are designed using Dimensional Modeling. Dimensional Modeling uses the existing relational database structure and builds on that.
There are two basic tables in dimensional modeling:-
Fact tables are central tables in data warehousing. Fact tables have the actual aggregate values which will be needed in a business process. While dimension tables revolve around fact tables. They describe the attributes of the fact tables.