The ServerAdmin directive specifies the email address to be advertised for the server's administrator. The default value is webmaster@localhost. This should be changed to an email address that is delivered to you (if you are the server's administrator). If your website has a problem, Apache2 will display an error message containing this email address to report the problem to. Find this directive in your site's configuration file in /etc/apache2/sites-available.
The Listen directive specifies the port, and optionally the IP address, Apache2 should listen on. If the IP address is not specified, Apache2 will listen on all IP addresses assigned to the machine it runs on. The default value for the Listen directive is 80. Change this to 127.0.0.1:80 to cause Apache2 to listen only on your loopback interface so that it will not be available to the Internet, to (for example) 81 to change the port that it listens on, or leave it as is for normal operation. This directive can be found and changed in its own file, /etc/apache2/ports.conf
The ServerName directive is optional and specifies what FQDN your site should answer to. The default virtual host has no ServerName directive specified, so it will respond to all requests that do not match a ServerName directive in another virtual host. If you have just acquired the domain name ubunturocks.com and wish to host it on your Ubuntu server, the value of the ServerName directive in your virtual host configuration file should be ubunturocks.com. Add this directive to the new virtual host file you created earlier (/etc/apache2/sites-available/mynewsite.conf).
You may also want your site to respond to www.ubunturocks.com, since many users will assume the www prefix is appropriate. Use the ServerAlias directive for this. You may also use wildcards in the ServerAlias directive.
For example, the following configuration will cause your site to respond to any domain request ending in .ubunturocks.com.
The DocumentRoot directive specifies where Apache2 should look for the files that make up the site. The default value is /var/www/html, as specified in /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf. If desired, change this value in your site's virtual host file, and remember to create that directory if necessary!
Enable the new VirtualHost using the a2ensite utility and restart Apache2:
sudo a2ensite mynewsite
sudo service apache2 restart
Be sure to replace mynewsite with a more descriptive name for the VirtualHost. One method is to name the file after the ServerName directive of the VirtualHost.
Similarly, use the a2dissite utility to disable sites. This is can be useful when troubleshooting configuration problems with multiple VirtualHosts:
sudo a2dissite mynewsite
sudo service apache2 restart
This section explains configuration of the Apache2 server default settings. For example, if you add a virtual host, the settings you configure for the virtual host take precedence for that virtual host. For a directive not defined within the virtual host settings, the default value is used.
The DirectoryIndex is the default page served by the server when a user requests an index of a directory by specifying a forward slash (/) at the end of the directory name.
For example, when a user requests the page http://www.example.com/this_directory/,
he or she will get either the DirectoryIndex page if it exists, a server-generated directory list if it does not and the Indexes option is specified, or a Permission Denied page if neither is true. The server will try to find one of the files listed in the DirectoryIndex directive and will return the first one it finds. If it does not find any of these files and if Options Indexes is set for that directory, the server will generate and return a list, in HTML format, of the subdirectories and files in the directory. The default value, found in /etc/apache2/mods-available/dir.conf is "index.html index.cgi index.pl index.php index.xhtml index.htm". Thus, if Apache2 finds a file in a requested directory matching any of these names, the first will be displayed.
The ErrorDocument directive allows you to specify a file for Apache2 to use for specific error events. For example, if a user requests a resource that does not exist, a 404 error will occur. By default, Apache2 will simply return a HTTP 404 Return code. Read /etc/apache2/conf-available/localized-error-pages.conf for detailed instructions for using ErrorDocument, including locations of example files.
By default, the server writes the transfer log to the file /var/log/apache2/access.log. You can change this on a per-site basis in your virtual host configuration files with the CustomLog directive, or omit it to accept the default, specified in /etc/apache2/conf.d/other-vhosts-access-log. You may also specify the file to which errors are logged, via the ErrorLog directive, whose default is /var/log/apache2/error.log. These are kept separate from the transfer logs to aid in troubleshooting problems with your Apache2 server. You may also specify the LogLevel (the default value is "warn") and the LogFormat (see /etc/apache2/apache2.conf for the default value).
Some options are specified on a per-directory basis rather than per-server. Options is one of these directives. A Directory stanza is enclosed in XML-like tags, like so:
The Options directive within a Directory stanza accepts one or more of the following values (among others), separated by spaces:
ExecCGI - Allow execution of CGI scripts. CGI scripts are not executed if this option is not chosen.
Most files should not be executed as CGI scripts. This would be very dangerous. CGI scripts should kept in a directory separate from and outside your DocumentRoot, and only this directory should have the ExecCGI option set. This is the default, and the default location for CGI scripts is /usr/lib/cgi-bin.
Includes - Allow server-side includes. Server-side includes allow an HTML file to include other files. See Apache SSI documentation (Ubuntu community) for more information.
IncludesNOEXEC - Allow server-side includes, but disable the #exec and #include commands in CGI scripts.
Indexes - Display a formatted list of the directory's contents, if no DirectoryIndex (such as index.html) exists in the requested directory.
For security reasons, this should usually not be set, and certainly should not be set on your DocumentRoot directory. Enable this option carefully on a per-directory basis only if you are certain you want users to see the entire contents of the directory.
Multiview - Support content-negotiated multiviews; this option is disabled by default for security reasons. See the Apache2 documentation on this option.