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HTTPD - Apache2 Web Server
The Apache2 web server is available in Ubuntu Linux. To install Apache2:
At a terminal prompt enter the following command:
sudo apt-get install apache2
Apache2 is configured by placing directives in plain text configuration files. These directives are separated between the following files and directories:
apache2.conf: the main Apache2 configuration file. Contains settings that are global to Apache2.
httpd.conf: historically the main Apache2 configuration file, named after the httpd daemon. Now the file does not exist. In older versions of Ubuntu the file might be present, but empty, as all configuration options have been moved to the below referenced directories.
conf-available: this directory contains available configuration files. All files that were previously in /etc/apache2/conf.d should be moved to /etc/apache2/conf-available.
conf-enabled: holds symlinks to the files in /etc/apache2/conf-available. When a configuration file is symlinked, it will be enabled the next time apache2 is restarted.
envvars: file where Apache2 environment variables are set.
mods-available: this directory contains configuration files to both load modules and configure them. Not all modules will have specific configuration files, however.
mods-enabled: holds symlinks to the files in /etc/apache2/mods-available. When a module configuration file is symlinked it will be enabled the next time apache2 is restarted.
ports.conf: houses the directives that determine which TCP ports Apache2 is listening on.
sites-available: this directory has configuration files for Apache2 Virtual Hosts. Virtual Hosts allow Apache2 to be configured for multiple sites that have separate configurations.
sites-enabled: like mods-enabled, sites-enabled contains symlinks to the /etc/apache2/sites-available directory. Similarly when a configuration file in sites-available is symlinked, the site configured by it will be active once Apache2 is restarted.
magic: instructions for determining MIME type based on the first few bytes of a file.
In addition, other configuration files may be added using the Include directive, and wildcards can be used to include many configuration files. Any directive may be placed in any of these configuration files. Changes to the main configuration files are only recognized by Apache2 when it is started or restarted.
The server also reads a file containing mime document types; the filename is set by the TypesConfig directive, typically via /etc/apache2/mods-available/mime.conf, which might also include additions and overrides, and is /etc/mime.types by default.
This section explains Apache2 server essential configuration parameters. Refer to the Apache2 Documentation for more details.
Apache2 ships with a virtual-host-friendly default configuration. That is, it is configured with a single default virtual host (using the VirtualHost directive) which can be modified or used as-is if you have a single site, or used as a template for additional virtual hosts if you have multiple sites. If left alone, the default virtual host will serve as your default site, or the site users will see if the URL they enter does not match the ServerName directive of any of your custom sites. To modify the default virtual host, edit the file /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf.
The directives set for a virtual host only apply to that particular virtual host. If a directive is set server-wide and not defined within the virtual host settings, the default setting is used. For example, you can define a Webmaster email address and not define individual email addresses for each virtual host.
If you wish to configure a new virtual host or site, copy that file into the same directory with a name you choose. For example:
sudo cp /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf /etc/apache2/sites-available/mynewsite.conf
Edit the new file to configure the new site using some of the directives described below.
Jun 9, 2015
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