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Apache Tomcat System-wide installation


System-wide installation

To install the Tomcat server, you can enter the following command in the terminal prompt:

sudo apt-get install tomcat7

This will install a Tomcat server with just a default ROOT webapp that displays a minimal "It works" page by default.

Configuration

Tomcat configuration files can be found in /etc/tomcat7. Only a few common configuration tweaks will be described here, please see Tomcat 7.0 documentation for more.

Changing default ports

By default Tomcat runs a HTTP connector on port 8080 and an AJP connector on port 8009. You might want to change those default ports to avoid conflict with another application on the system. This is done by changing the following lines in/etc/tomcat7/server.xml:


...

Changing JVM used

By default Tomcat will run preferably with OpenJDK JVMs, then try the Sun JVMs, then try some other JVMs. You can force Tomcat to use a specific JVM by setting JAVA_HOME in /etc/default/tomcat7:

JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun

Declaring users and roles

Usernames, passwords and roles (groups) can be defined centrally in a Servlet container. This is done in the/etc/tomcat7/tomcat-users.xml file:



Using Tomcat standard webapps

Tomcat is shipped with webapps that you can install for documentation, administration or demo purposes.

Tomcat documentation

The tomcat7-docs package contains Tomcat documentation, packaged as a webapp that you can access by default at http://yourserver:8080/docs. You can install it by entering the following command in the terminal prompt:

sudo apt-get install tomcat7-docs

Tomcat administration webapps

The tomcat7-admin package contains two webapps that can be used to administer the Tomcat server using a web interface. You can install them by entering the following command in the terminal prompt:

sudo apt-get install tomcat7-admin

The first one is the manager webapp, which you can access by default at http://yourserver:8080/manager/html. It is primarily used to get server status and restart webapps.

Access to the manager application is protected by default: you need to define a user with the role "manager-gui" in/etc/tomcat7/tomcat-users.xml before you can access it.

The second one is the host-manager webapp, which you can access by default at http://yourserver:8080/host-manager/html. It can be used to create virtual hosts dynamically.

Access to the host-manager application is also protected by default: you need to define a user with the role "admin-gui" in /etc/tomcat7/tomcat-users.xml before you can access it.

For security reasons, the tomcat7 user cannot write to the /etc/tomcat7 directory by default. Some features in these admin webapps (application deployment, virtual host creation) need write access to that directory. If you want to use these features execute the following, to give users in the tomcat7 group the necessary rights:

sudo chgrp -R tomcat7 /etc/tomcat7
sudo chmod -R g+w /etc/tomcat7 

Tomcat examples webapps

The tomcat7-examples package contains two webapps that can be used to test or demonstrate Servlets and JSP features, which you can access them by default at http://yourserver:8080/examples. You can install them by entering the following command in the terminal prompt:

sudo apt-get install tomcat7-examples

Using private instances

Tomcat is heavily used in development and testing scenarios where using a single system-wide instance doesn't meet the requirements of multiple users on a single system. The Tomcat packages in Ubuntu come with tools to help deploy your own user-oriented instances, allowing every user on a system to run (without root rights) separate private instances while still using the system-installed libraries.

It is possible to run the system-wide instance and the private instances in parallel, as long as they do not use the same TCP ports.

Installing private instance support

You can install everything necessary to run private instances by entering the following command in the terminal prompt:

sudo apt-get install tomcat7-user

Creating a private instance

You can create a private instance directory by entering the following command in the terminal prompt:

tomcat7-instance-create my-instance

This will create a new my-instance directory with all the necessary subdirectories and scripts. You can for example install your common libraries in the lib/ subdirectory and deploy your webapps in the webapps/ subdirectory. No webapps are deployed by default.

Configuring your private instance

You will find the classic Tomcat configuration files for your private instance in the conf/ subdirectory. You should for example certainly edit the conf/server.xml file to change the default ports used by your private Tomcat instance to avoid conflict with other instances that might be running.

Starting/stopping your private instance

You can start your private instance by entering the following command in the terminal prompt (supposing your instance is located in the my-instance directory):

my-instance/bin/startup.sh

You should check the logs/ subdirectory for any error. If you have a java.net.BindException: Address already in use:8080 error, it means that the port you're using is already taken and that you should change it.

You can stop your instance by entering the following command in the terminal prompt (supposing your instance is located in the my-instance directory):

my-instance/bin/shutdown.sh
asked Jun 9, 2015 in LINUX by rajesh
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