The problem here is that Oracle's way of doing stored procedures is not JDBC compliant. Oracle's SPs return resultset data via OUT parameters or return values that are cursors, and they have to be handled specially. This means you cannot use any of Spring's JDBC stuff that assumes compliance with JDBC, you have to do it yourself.
In practice, this means you have to use
CallableStatementCallback, which means a lot more manual JDBC coding than you'd ideally like, but I've yet to find a way to avoid this.
On a slight aside, I rather suspect that the JDBC spec was written to conform closely to the Sybase (and, by association, SQL Server) way of doing things, because the way stored procedures are handled in JDBC is a remarkably good fit for those systems (and a poor fit for Oracle's).