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why does instanceof return false for some literals

why does instanceof return false for some literals  using -'javascript,literals,instanceof'

"foo" instanceof String //=> false
"foo" instanceof Object //=> false
true instanceof Boolean //=> false
true instanceof Object //=> false
false instanceof Boolean //=> false
false instanceof Object //=> false

// the tests against Object really don't make sense

Array literals and Object literals match...

[0,1] instanceof Array //=> true
{0:1} instanceof Object //=> true

Why don't all of them? Or, why don't none of them?
And, what are they an instance of, then? Nothing()?

It's the same in FF3, IE7, Opera, and Chrome. So, at least it's consistent. ;)

Missed a few. ;)

12.21 instanceof Number //=> false
/foo/ instanceof RegExp //=> true


asked Sep 16, 2015 by akhilesh
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6 Answers

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Literals are a different kind of object than objects created from within Javascript. From the Mozilla API docs:

var color1 = new String("green");
color1 instanceof String; // returns true
var color2 = "coral";
color2 instanceof String; // returns false (color2 is not a String object)

I can't find any way to construct literal types with code, perhaps it's not possible. This is probably why people use typeof "foo" === "string" instead of instanceof.

An easy way to remember things like this is asking yourself "I wonder what would be sane and easy to learn"? Whatever the answer is, Javascript does the other thing.

answered Sep 16, 2015 by ashishshukla
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I use:

function isString(s) {
    return typeof(s) === 'string' || s instanceof String;

Because in JavaScript strings can be literals or objects.

answered Sep 16, 2015 by dahiyabecomp
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In JavaScript everything is an object (or may at least be treated as an object). The only non-objects are primitive booleans,null, numbers, strings and the value undefined , (and symbol in ES6):

console.log(typeof true);           // boolean
console.log(typeof 0);              // number
console.log(typeof "");             // string
console.log(typeof undefined);      // undefined
console.log(typeof null);           // object
console.log(typeof []);             // object
console.log(typeof {});             // object
console.log(typeof function () {}); // function

As you can see objects, arrays and the value null are all considered objects (null is a reference to an object which doesn't exist). Functions are distinguished because they are a special type of callable objects. However they are still objects.

On the other hand the literals true, 0, "" and undefined are not objects. They are primitive values in JavaScript. However booleans, numbers and strings also have constructors Boolean, Number and String respectively which wrap their respective primitives to provide added functionality:

console.log(typeof new Boolean(true)); // object
console.log(typeof new Number(0));     // object
console.log(typeof new String(""));    // object

As you can see when primitive values are wrapped within the Boolean, Number and String constructors respectively they become objects. The instanceof operator only works for objects (which is why it returns false for primitive values):

console.log(true instanceof Boolean);              // false
console.log(0 instanceof Number);                  // false
console.log("" instanceof String);                 // false
console.log(new Boolean(true) instanceof Boolean); // true
console.log(new Number(0) instanceof Number);      // true
console.log(new String("") instanceof String);     // true

As you can see both typeof and instanceof are insufficient to test whether a value is a boolean, a number or a string - typeof only works for primitive booleans, numbers and strings; and instanceof doesn't work for primitive booleans, numbers and strings.

Fortunately there's a simple solution to this problem. The default implementation of toString (i.e. as it's natively defined on Object.prototype.toString) returns the internal [[Class]] property of both primitive values and objects:

function classOf(value) {

console.log(classOf(true));              // [object Boolean]
console.log(classOf(0));                 // [object Number]
console.log(classOf(""));                // [object String]
console.log(classOf(new Boolean(true))); // [object Boolean]
console.log(classOf(new Number(0)));     // [object Number]
console.log(classOf(new String("")));    // [object String]

The internal [[Class]] property of a value is much more useful than the typeof the value. We can use Object.prototype.toString to create our own (more useful) version of the typeof operator as follows:

function typeOf(value) {
    return, -1);

console.log(typeOf(true));              // Boolean
console.log(typeOf(0));                 // Number
console.log(typeOf(""));                // String
console.log(typeOf(new Boolean(true))); // Boolean
console.log(typeOf(new Number(0)));     // Number
console.log(typeOf(new String("")));    // String

Hope this article helped. To know more about the differences between primitives and wrapped objects read the following blog post: The Secret Life of JavaScript Primitives

answered Sep 16, 2015 by patilkiran.101
0 votes

For me the confusion caused by

"str".__proto__ // #1
=> String

So "str" istanceof String should return true because how istanceof works as below:

"str".__proto__ == String.prototype // #2
=> true

Results of expression #1 and #2 conflict each other, so there should be one of them wrong.

#1 is wrong

I figure out that it caused by the __proto__ is non standard property, so use the standard one:Object.getPrototypeOf

Object.getPrototypeOf("str") // #3
=> TypeError: Object.getPrototypeOf called on non-object

Now there's no confusion between expression #2 and #3

answered Sep 16, 2015 by bhavin
0 votes

That's because those things are primitives, and unless they need to be used as objects (when you are calling methods on them, for example) they remain so. The only time they "become" objects is when they need to be wrapped. If you are familiar with the concept of "boxing" in .NET, then think of it in that way.

Here is an example - take a look at this code:

Number.prototype.times = function(func) {
   for(var index = 1; index <= this; index++) {

So, the following code will fail:

3.times(print); // assume 'print' writes to standard out

3, by itself is a primitive. That said, the following will work:

(3).times(print); // assume 'print' writes to standard out

That would display the numbers 1, 2, and 3. Because of the parenthesis, the JavaScript interpreter will temporarily wrap the primitive 3 in a Number object, call the method, and then garbage collect the object since it isn't needed any longer.

Anyway, a full discussion of this can be found in "JavaScript: The Definitive Guide."

answered Sep 16, 2015 by deepak07.s
0 votes

Or you can just make your own function like so:

function isInstanceOf(obj, clazz){
  return (obj instanceof eval("("+clazz+")")) || (typeof obj == clazz.toLowerCase());


isInstanceOf(new String(), 'String');

These should both return true.

answered Sep 16, 2015 by pradip.bhoge